This is actually could be done for a biology project if you want and if you are interested on my topic DNA isolation go on reading and if you are not i don't ask you to stop but take your own decision.But as i believe most of you are very fond of science and wants to find new things and learn them.And by the way you should have at least the knowledge of what a cell is which will help you to understand my article.
Let's get started ...
To start with and to make you a little bit oriented i would like to say a brief fact on what a cell is.A cell is basic structural and functional unit of living organisms.Mainly it contains a nucleus,cell wall (only in plants), a membrane and what else.That;s enough for this topic.
The topic clearly states this is a method to extract the DNA from a cell.So, for this you will need the following materials...
(1) Any fruit ( I will choose banana for this project )
(2) 100 cc or 100ml of water
(3) Detergent used to wash dishes in kitchen
(4) A teaspoon
(5) A polythene bag
(6) A container to keep the fruit mixtures
(7) Table salt ( NaCl )
(8) Rubbing alcohol ( cold is better )
Step by step instructions to the extraction
The main idea is to make the DNA free from the walls it is surrounded with ..That is as you know DNA is inside the nucleus and is surrounded with a cell membrane.And before everything we should break down the cell walls of the fruit cells.This can be achieved by crushing or grinding the banana.Then what is next?
You should break down the plasma or cell surface membrane and the nuclear membrane.In fact the membranes are made up of phospholipids ..So..How to break down lipids?
What do you use to wash dishes to get rid out of oil or lipids? Yeah..You can use the detergent to do this.
Just add a moderate amount of detergent liquid.This will break down every membrane.
Now..the DNA should come out of the cells but if we want to get the pure DNA, what we are gonna do?
In fact the DNA is wrapped by a protein called 'histone' if you don't know know about histone ask your biology teacher because a professional teacher will explain more than me ..
To break down the histone proteins use table salts or NaCl in a moderate amount.This NaCl will break down some of the proteins and will give you the pure DNA.
At last, you must shake it well and transfer the whole lot of the solution to a test tube or a container which is invisible because you want to see it very well.Now pour 1/4 of of the invisible container with COLD rubbing alcohol.You can use a warm ones even but I used cold ones.Why do I use rubbing alcohol?
This is because DNA is not soluble or insoluble in alcohol which is cold.
Eventually you will find the nucleotide of the DNA floating in the alcohol in the container.
This was a very interesting experiment for me.Hope you enjoyed and gained some knowledge about the behavior of membranes and how do they break and many more.Just have a try because i am sure you all have what is needed for this experiment in your own kitchen ....
How to extract DNA from anything living
Smarterthanthat: Extracting your Own DNA in your Kitchen
I learnt about this DNA extraction from the following web sites
- How to extract DNA from fruits
- Extraction from cheek cells
Update: A much detailed post - Extract DNA from living cells